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Fishing and Aquaculture

The Australian seafood industry is broad and diverse. It is comprised of four distinct areas: traditional wild catch fishing, aquaculture, seafood processing, and the wholesale and retail enterprise. The industry forms a vital component of the economy and is part of the national and Territory identity. Australia’s fisheries are a valuable natural resource and coupled with the continued expansion of the aquaculture sector, will provide a key source of growth for the country for years to follow.

 

 

The global demand continues to increase steadily year after year, as better informed and socially aware consumers seek an alternative natural source of protein. This is mirrored domestically and creates favourable economic conditions across all areas of the industry.  

Australia’s fishing and aquaculture enterprise is a key primary industry. It provides employment across rural and coastal Australia; sustaining these communities and supporting the retail and hospitality industries.

Australia has a well-deserved standing for producing high quality and sustainable seafood. The foundations for this strong export demand are built on a reputation for high regulatory safety standards and from being a recognised world leader in fisheries management.  

Australia has a global reputation for a sustained high-quality product, which allows for producers to sell at a premium in international markets

Seafood Industry Report, EverBlu Capital Research (2018)

The fisheries and aquaculture industries are going from strength-to-strength thanks to Australia’s reputation as a supplier of sustainable, high-quality seafood and sensible government policies
Anne Ruston, Assistant Minister for Agriculture and Water Resources. (2017)

Australia is a net exporter of seafood in dollar value terms, with this market accounting for over half of industry revenue.  Australian’s affinity for seafood warrants that demand exceeds supply and consequently Australia is a net importer by volume.  

A rapidly developing aquaculture industry in southern Asia coupled with cheap operating costs, ensure farmed seafood can be imported at low prices. A reciprocal demand for Australian native species exists throughout the Asian continent. The high quality and recognised safety standards of the Australian product guarantees that premium prices are paid.

Aquaculture is seen as an increasingly sustainable and consistent means of meeting domestic demands, especially when considering improved efforts to manage wild-caught species through the reduction in quota volumes.  

The industry is facing challenges. Sea temperature rises are likely to have an adverse effect on delicate marine ecosystems if unchecked. The globalisation of markets presents significant trading opportunities for Australian exporters, but this, in turn, introduces new competition and risks to supply chains in an increasingly uncertain world. The transport of goods across Australia is often inefficient and expensive due to the vast distances and the dispersed value chains and markets.  

Because of their reputation for high-quality, safe and well-managed product, Australian exporters are generally very well-positioned to respond to any emerging demand for environmentally-sustainable seafood in China

The Chinese seafood market: opportunities and challenges for Australian exporters (2018)

Importers in China and South-East Asia have significantly lower operating costs than local firms and are therefore more competitive in the domestic market
IBISWorld Seafood Processing Australia Industry report (2018)

The outlook is broadly positive. The research and development sector has a well-founded reputation. Australian businesses are globally facing and are well positioned to utilise foreign trading partners. The quality and diversity of Australian seafood products are high and in great demand. 

The challenge will be to ensure that a profitable and competitive industry can continue to grow whilst ensuring that the long-term future protection and sustainability of Australia’s priceless marine ecosystems are guaranteed.  

Whilst enjoying the third largest fishing zone in the world, the entire Australian wild caught production represents just 0.002% of the world’s production.

 

 

 

 

 

Fishing and Aquaculture in the Northern Territory

Map of northern NT Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (Source: Department of Treasury and Finance; Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries)

The commercial fishing industry in the Northern Territory boasts a vibrant history and is part of the fabric of the Top End. The early development of the sector, like many goods-producing industries, was constrained by the distance to market, as well as access to chilling and freezing equipment. It was not until the 1970s when the industry experienced significant growth, boosted by rapid increases in overseas migration, due to changes in national population policy and immigration legislation.

Pristine tropical waters adjoined with a wild diverse coastline highlight the Northern Territory’s truly unique setting. The monsoonal climate that dominates the Top End gives rise to a myriad of seasonal river systems that support the diverse range of aquatic life and this adds to the exceptional nature of the environment.

Fishing is synonymous with the Northern Territory. It is an activity that has been performed ever since the earliest human occupation of the region 65,000 years ago. Today the marine and riverine environment of some 500,000 square kilometres is shared between commercial fishers, Aboriginal coastal communities, recreational fishing and other major industries such as mining and the resources sector.

Small in comparison to domestic and international standards, commercial fishing today in the Northern Territory is a well-established, highly diverse primary industry. It breathes life into the economy of remote and coastal communities and has a far-reaching socio-economic impact beyond the value of the fisheries themselves.

Broader economic impact of the Fishing and Aquaculture industry

Recreational Fishing

The recreational fishing industry is extensive and generates considerable tourist revenue. Fishing tourism in the Northern Territory is estimated to generate around $26m a year, with $22m coming from interstate and overseas visitors. The challenge of barramundi fishing is a real draw and there are a broad range of fishing tourism operators to support this and blue water fishing activity. For Territorians, fishing is a part of life; angling clubs are abundant across the entire Northern Territory and there are numerous fishing competitions occurring throughout the year.

Indigenous Peoples

Fishing has formed part of the deep spiritual and cultural connection for Indigenous peoples that have the ocean or waterways forming part of their country. In north-east Arnhem land, the Yolŋu peoples consider that land and sea are inseparably linked, with traditional owners having equal responsibility to look after the resources and environments of both their sea and land estates. The provision of the Aboriginal Coastal Licence formalises this fishing activity and will promote development in these remote coastal communities and provide an introduction for Aboriginal community members to the seafood industry. For saltwater communities, the sea is integral to many people’s concepts of country and identity.

Tides will tell us [when to go out fishing] the weather will tell us. Those balanda [white people], they’ve got fish radar, but we don’t use that one. We know the places to get what we want, it’s there. What we don’t want, we just leave it.

Jonathan Yalandhu, Yolŋu man of the Gupapuyŋu clan (2017)

For every 100 jobs in the seafood industry, a further 57 are created elsewhere across a wide spectrum of supporting industries. Every $1 million produced by front-line wild catch and aquaculture operations creates an extra $400,000 through related services, such as fuel, repairs and equipment
The Hon Ken Vowles, Minister for Primary Industry and Resources

The Fisheries of the Northern Territory

 

There are 15 different Wild Catch and Aquaculture fisheries that make up the commercial fishing operational footprint in the NT; seven are highlighted here.

 

 

Aquaculture in the Territory

The Northern Territory boasts a diverse and vibrant aquaculture industry. An extensive range of commercial activity includes barramundi farming, trepang (sea cucumber), pearling and the collection of marine fish and coral for the tropical aquarium market. Aquaculture is a growth sector, and this is aligned with the national and global picture, as farmed fishing is seen as the solution to meeting the world’s increasing demand for seafood.

The principal aquaculture businesses are well established in the NT. They are significant employers and are secure enduring enterprises. A recent northern Australia infrastructure loan granted to a Northern Territory barramundi farming business will enable significant growth and development opportunities. There is genuine confidence in the sector and the economic outlook is positive for the industry.

 

 

Project Sea Dragon

Sea Dragon is a large scale, land-based aquaculture project that will produce black tiger prawns. The project was designed to produce an all year-round high-quality product that is aimed predominately for the export market.

Project Sea Dragon is multi-phased and will develop through several stages. The first stage will see the establishment of the Bynoe harbour site in mid-2019, which in turn will lead to the stocking of ponds at the grow out facility. This site at Legune Station will be a single farm initially comprising 40 ten-hectare ponds. These ponds will be stocked from October 2020, with the first harvest in 2021.

There will be significant workforce requirements throughout the life of the project. For the first stage, the operation at Legune Station will need in the region of 60 full-time staff involved in the harvesting alone; with transport and logistics support to enable 230 truck movements a week from the facility to Kununurra. Once full-scale, project Sea Dragon has the potential to create approximately 1,500 jobs in northern Australia of which 1000 of these will be in the Northern Territory.

Project Sea Dragon will be one of the world’s largest aquaculture operations and has the potential to be an enduring success story for the Northern Territory by providing ongoing employment opportunities for years to come.

 

Source: Seafarms 

Project Sea Dragon is exactly the kind of major project the NT needs. It will create up to 1500 jobs, and it diversifies the Territory’s economy by delivering a new industry for Australia.
The Hon Michael Gunner, Chief Minister for the Northern Territory (2018)

Case Study

Jo Donges – Master Fisher…Cook…Crew Member Observer (CMO)

In early 1993, Jo Donges was living in country Queensland. A friend’s father was a fisherman and he made Jo aware of a job opportunity onboard a vessel running out of Cairns. At 17, Jo took the decision to try something different and made the journey to Cairns. She headed out to sea on what was the start of a 25-year association with the seafood industry.

Women are represented in the global fishing sector, making up almost half of the workforce, however, the vast majority occupy roles in the processing, support and retail area. Whilst women at sea are far from unheard of; indeed, there is a female on all of WA Seafoods’ trawlers, the commercial fishing operation is still a heavily male-dominated arena. This situation has changed little since the first time Jo went to sea a quarter of a century ago.

Jo has had a fascinating and varied career. Working principally on prawn trawlers, her first role at sea was as a cook. Within a year, she had qualified as a master fisher and at 18, was the youngest master fisher throughout the Gulf of Carpentaria. Over her career, she has performed a variety of roles including deckhand, first mate and she is also a qualified coxswain.

More recently, Jo has been working for WA Seafoods. This endeavour has taken her across every corner of the Northern Prawn Fishery (NPF) in the pursuit of banana and tiger prawns. The work is intense, and the days and nights are long. A day in the life of Jo at sea starts at 1630hrs with preparation and cooking of dinner for the crew of up to seven. During this time the first ‘shot’ of nets are made and these are trawled for three hours, before being recovered, the catch sorted and then the process is repeated; generally, throughout the night and often long into the next day.

It is during these cycles of trawling and recovery where another of Jo’s roles comes into play. The fishery is co-managed by NPF Industry and the Australian Fisheries Management Authority. This partnership has embraced a fisheries management strategy that is ecosystem based; this is to focus on ensuring the sustainability of the fishery ecosystem as well as commercial prawn species. Jo is the Crew Member Observer onboard Ocean Producer and this important role contributes directly to the sustainable management of the fishery.

The Crew Member Observer program has been running for 16 years. It is managed in a partnership between the industry association and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). It has been developed as a cost-effective means to monitor interactions with the protected, endangered and at-risk species; Jo and her fellow CMOs record and collate vast amounts of valuable data, which is then used by CSIRO for the NPF bycatch sustainability assessment. The data is used to determine if there are any changes in the catch trends of species, which in turn informs fisheries management strategies and decisions.

Jo and the 11 other CMOs across the fishery play an integral part to ensure that the NPF is now economically efficient and environmentally sustainable. This approach has won praise from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation as a global model of fisheries management; the prawns harvested across the vast stretch of the NPF are certified by the Marine Stewardship Council, an independent body that certifies sustainable fisheries worldwide.

The ecological and environmental management of the oceans is in good hands; with dedicated seafood professionals like Jo, sustainability of the marine ecosystem is enduring. The life of a commercial fisher is tough; the hours are long and the operating conditions dynamic and often challenging. Jo has demonstrated that flexibility, resilience and enthusiasm are but some of the necessary attributes for a successful career in the seafood industry, whilst gender is not.

Current State

Strengths

Geopolitical and Economic

  • Location, low cost of operation and NT Government subsidised support of the Francis Bay Mooring Basin (the ‘Duckpond’)
  • Passionate and hardworking industry participants
  • Industry-led innovation, resilience and adaptability
  • Strength and commitment of the NT Seafood Council
  • Quality of the environment; unspoilt pristine waters with low vessel traffic density
  • ​Fisheries subject to significant regulatory control:
    • Strong fisheries management processes
    • Small number of licences (220 licences spread over 15 fisheries) compared to other jurisdictions
    • Sustainability; well-established checks and controls across fisheries ensures effective audit trails of all catches
  • Creation of a single, national peak body in June 2017 (Seafood Industry Australia)
  • NT Government’s support and investment in research, management and administration
  • Branding and labelling of NT fish; traceability of seafood from the source onto the plate
  • Stable, well established and consistent industry that does not suffer from cycles of boom and bust
  • A mature local contractor base provides quality support services to fishing operators in turn supporting the local economy
  • Small population of the NT:
    • Ensures that comprehensive community engagement can be done
    • Strong community affiliation, local focus and accessibility of business owners to consumers
    • A well established and locally backed marketing campaign - support NT caught

Workforce and Occupations

  • Career path opportunities exist in the NT from deckhand to skipper
  • Durability and levels of experience retained by industry participants
  • Diverse career opportunities across the entire sector; in areas such as marketing, business management and logistics
  • Positive experiences with the businesses that utilise backpacker labour
  • Willingness of Government and Industry to build capacity and create interest in the sector for Indigenous participants; the Aboriginal coastal licence is an example

Skills and Training

  • Charles Darwin University (CDU) partnerships with aquaculture businesses to provide accredited onsite aquaculture training for staff
  • Commitment of many business owners to support and fund the cost of training and professional development of employees
  • Many entry-level roles do not require formal education and are therefore an accessible career; many organisations employ for attitude then train the right people for skills
  • Availability of AMSA recognised training providers within the NT

Challenges

Geopolitical and Economic

  • Industry participants are operating in a high-risk environment due to uncertainty over access to fishing grounds for 2019
  • Marine closures, creation of marine parks and reduction of fishing grounds
  • Country of origin labelling on foods is not a mandatory requirement in the hospitality industry
  • Ensuring that water space and fishing ground allocation across sectors is equitable between commercial, recreational, traditional owners, resources industry and other users of the marine environment
  • Cost of doing business in the Northern Territory:
    • Capital investment required to enter both wild caught and aquaculture sectors is high
    • Cost of domestic air travel to and from Northern Territory airports
    • Cost of certification and Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) (https://www.amsa.gov.au/) compliant maritime courses
    • Major food retailers require testing of all fish products by the National Association Testing Authority (NATA) approved laboratory and none are present in the NT
  • Number of licences across some fisheries that are underutilised or dormant
  • Increasing number of regulatory and compliance requirements for operators
  • Low cost imported wild-caught and aquaculture products
  • No frozen container facility in Darwin to ship in bulk to the export market
  • Negative perception of the industry by some areas of the general public

Workforce and Occupations

  • Ageing demographic; particularly among the highly skilled and experienced workforce
  • Retention within the industry:
    • Diminishing pool of talent entering the industry; individuals leave before they are ready to progress
    • Irregular undefined amount of earnings (shared fishing agreements)
    • Seasonal nature of the work; casual roles are not conducive to retention
    • Tough and demanding work in arduous conditions
  • Competition from resources industry for skills and labour
  • Chronic shortage of Marine Engineers/Fitters
  • Undersupply of NT based workers with the requisite attitude and work ethic for entry-level roles in the industry
  • Pressure on individuals to have a consistent and constant connection to social media; no appetite for isolation
  • Low participation rate of Indigenous workers in the sector
  • Introduction of nationally recognised AMSA qualifications impacts retention of NT based workforce
  • Transient and cyclical nature of the NT employment calendar
  • Increase to the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) level required for overseas workers
  • Decline in backpacker numbers has had an impact on the businesses that rely on this pool to provide labour

Skills and Training

  • Low level of digital literacy skills for compliance and regulation
  • Insufficient number of qualified instructors to teach maritime courses in the NT
  • Shortage of individuals with the following qualifications:
    • Master < 24m near coastal (Cert III in Maritime Operations)
    • Master < 35m near coastal (Cert IV in Maritime Operations)
    • Marine Engine Driver Grade 2 (Cert III in Maritime Operations)
  • Culture of ‘train you myself’ and preference given to non-accredited ‘on the job training’
  • Skilled filleting/processors in short supply
  • Seafood processing courses not offered in the NT
  • Aquaculture experience base is small outside of Tasmanian Salmon industry

Future State

Opportunities

Geopolitical and Economic

  • Social licence – further development will ensure that the industry is more customer focused and transparent
  • NT Government to collaborate with industry, to support the sector and to act as a broker for change to ensure that the industry is enduring
  • Fisheries are small, room for growth and opportunity for expansion
  • Increased global demand for seafood and the potential to explore niche export markets
  • Development opportunities borne out of infrastructure enhancements created by major projects from other sectors
  • Develop a more strategic outlook and a collaborative approach to strengthen the industry; to create scale and increase opportunities in domestic and export markets
  • Improvement of collaboration, trust and partnering across all sector participants (government, commercial, recreational and traditional owners)
  • Investment in Indigenous business/joint ventures in remote areas to have a sustainable economic benefit
  • Partnering, collaboration and idea sharing between industry and traditional owners in coastal fisheries and in the development of businesses in remote locations
  • Enhance access and availability of Nhulunbuy port services for wild catch fleets
  • Enhancement of marketing opportunities:
    • Simple marketing strategies to promote NT caught ‘destination of choice’; partnering with tourism
    • Reinstatement of the NT Seafood festival
    • Marketing and selling of non-traditional produce and bycatch
    • Utilisation of social media to promote the industry in a positive light

Workforce and Occupations

  • Enhanced recruitment options through schemes such as the Seasonal worker and Pacific worker programme to fill gaps in the semi-skilled workforce
  • Introduction of industry sponsored and defined career pathways in the wild caught sector to nurture young talent and provide an attainable career path from deck hand to skipper
  • Promotion of school-based apprenticeships in aquaculture to promote occupations and provide a pathway into the industry
  • Identification of Indigenous career pathways to the industry

Skills and Training

  • Potential of emerging innovations and technologies such as Artificial Intelligence, machine learning and robotics in the wholesale and fish farming processes
  • Increase uptake and availability of training and assessment courses for business owners and operators to enable upskilling of employees with industry recognised qualifications
  • Creation of greater online components for marine courses will speed up the process of qualification and present savings for individuals and businesses alike
  • Increase the provision of small business management skills education, notably in digital literacy training, for wild catch and aquaculture business owners and operators
  • Research, development and extension in the breeding, raising and harvesting of fish, seafood and aquatic plants in the Australian aquaculture industry to add value and increase profitability
  • Increased focus on the areas of science technology engineering and mathematics (STEM), compliance and leadership, areas likely to be in greater demand over the next decade

Threats

Geopolitical and Economic

  • Challenges in attracting and retaining people in the Northern Territory
  • Cost to doing business if a policy of full cost recovery of fisheries administration and management is introduced by the NT Government
  • Increasing aged facilities and infrastructure at ‘the Duckpond’
  • No cold storage shipping facility in Darwin
  • Cost and bureaucratic challenges in securing an export licence; the loss in revenue and opportunities from not being able to access foreign markets
  • Competition from cheap imports low-cost farmed fish
  • Biosecurity and the disease transmission risks associated with the import of whole uncooked fish
  • Difficulty to access capital to either assist in the start-up of new ventures or to assist in the running of established businesses
  • Long-term job insecurity as the issue of coastal and inshore fisheries access remains unresolved
  • Diminished supply to local consumers if there is an increased demand for NT products from interstate and export markets

Workforce and Occupations

  • Upward turn in the resources sector will increase competition for experienced and qualified individuals
  • Lack of succession planning; an ageing industry that will see a significant proportion of expertise and experience departing from the workforce in the next decade
  • Impact and understanding of enduring mental health and wellbeing issues on industry participants. Research has shown that Australia’s commercial fishers experience twice the base-rate of psychological stress of any other sector (Deakin University survey 2017)
  • Ability to attract and inspire new entrants to the workforce to consider the fishing and aquaculture industry as a viable and long-term career option
  • Trainers that possess relevant industry experience and requisite teaching qualifications are difficult to recruit
  • Declining number of qualified skippers that possess sufficient experience in operating in the NT fisheries

Skills and Training

  • Uncertainty as to the nature and scale of requalification criteria following the introduction of certification with a five-year expiry by AMSA
  • Challenges in coordination and cost-effectiveness of training delivery in remote locations
  • Duration and bureaucracy required, along with the need to garner industry support, to make changes to training products

Occupations in demand and career pathways

Occupations in demand and qualifications pathways have been identified. These occupations may require additional licences, accreditations, certifications and specialised training. 

NT Apprenticeship / Traineeship

Training Delivered in the NT

NO NT Appreticeship / Traineeship

NO Training Delivered in the NT

Aquaculture Workers

ANZSCO # 841111 Perform routine tasks in breeding and raising fish and other aquatic stock. Skill Level: 5

Certificate II in Aquaculture

Certificate III in Aquaculture

Certificate IV in Aquaculture

Aquaculture Farmer

Alternative Titles: Seafood farmer/Hatchery Manager

ANZSCO # 121111 Plan, organise, control, coordinate and perform farming operations to breed and raise fish and other aquatic stock. Skill Level: 1

Diploma in Aquaculture

BSc Aquaculture Science and Technology/Marine Science and Aquaculture

Deckhand / Fishing Hand

Alternative Titles: First Mate/Coxswain

ANZSCO # 899211 Performs maintenance and lookout tasks aboard a ship. Skill Level: 4

Shipboard safety skill set

Certificate II in Fishing Operations

Certificate III in Fishing Operations

Master Fisher

Alternative Titles: Ship’s master / Skipper

ANZSCO # 231211 Controls a fishing vessel and fishing operations to catch and preserve fish, crustacea and molluscs. Skill Level: 1

Certificate IV in Fishing Operations

Diploma in Fishing Operations

or

Certificate I in Maritime Operations (Coxswain Grade 2 Near Coastal)

Certificate II in Maritime Operations (Coxswain Grade 1 Near Coastal)

Certificate III in Maritime Operations (Master up to 24 metres Near Coastal)

Certificate III in Maritime Operations (Marine Engine Driver Grade 2)

Certificate IV in Maritime Operations (Master up to 35 metres Near Coastal)

Certificate IV in Maritime Operations (Marine Engine Driver Grade 1)

Ship’s Engineer

ANZSCO # 231212 Controls and manages the operation and maintenance of a ship's plant and equipment. Skill Level: 1

Certificate II in Maritime Operations (Marine Engine Driver Grade 3)

Cert III in Maritime Operations (Marine Engine Driver Grade 2)

Cert IV in Maritime Operations (Marine Engine Driver Grade 1)

Diploma in Maritime Operations (Marine Engineer Class 3 Near Coastal)

Seafood Process Worker

ANZSCO # 831313 Scales, cleans, fillets, cuts, shells, grades and packages fish and shellfish. Skill Level: 5

Cert II in Seafood Processing

Cert III in Seafood Processing

Cert IV in Seafood Processing

Fisheries Officer

ANZSCO # 311311 Inspects fishing vessels, gear, licences and catches to ensure that fisheries laws and regulations are obeyed. Skill Level: 2

Cert II in Fisheries Compliance Support

Cert III in Fisheries Compliance

Cert IV in Fisheries Compliance

Maritime Enrolments and Completions

Qualification Name 2014 2015 2016 2017
  Enrolments Completions Enrolments Completions Enrolments Completions Enrolments Completions (Preliminary)
Certificate I in Maritime Operations (Coxswain Grade 2 Near Coastal) 56 55 82 57 106 91 71 68
Certificate II in Maritime Operations (Coxswain Grade 1 Near Coastal) 110 57 117 64 124 56 207 70
Certificate III in Maritime Operations (Marine Engine Driver Grade 2 Near Coastal) 23 17 27 23 18 19 23 26
Certificate III in Maritime Operations (Master up to 24 metres Near Coastal) 18 17 34 25 29 23 15 20
Certificate IV in Maritime Operations (Marine Engine Driver Grade 1 Near Coastal) 0 0 2 0 8 1 9 1
Certificate IV in Maritime Operations (Master up to 35 metres Near Coastal) 3 4 6 3 9 8 13 5
Diploma of Maritime Operations (Marine Engineering Class 3 Near Coastal) 0 0 0 0 9 1 3 0

Source: NCVER VOCSTATS
Years:2014, 2015, 2016, 2017.
State/Territory of residence of Student: Northern Territory 

Seafood and Aquaculture Enrolments and Completions

Qualification Name 2014 2015 2016 2017
  Enrolments Completions Enrolments Completions Enrolments Completions Enrolments Completions (Preliminary)
Certificate II in Aquaculture 19 9 19 0 13 10 10 5
Certificate II in Fishing Operations 0 0 0 0 30 29 2 0
Certificate II in Fisheries Compliance Support 0 0 0 0 34 19 11 8
Certificate III in Aquaculture 3 2 2 6 9 0 18 1
Certificate III in Fishing Operations 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 13
Certificate III in Fisheries Compliance 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 19
Diploma of Aquaculture 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 0

Source: NCVER VOCSTATS 
Years:2014, 2015, 2016, 2017.
State/Territory of residence of Student: Northern Territory 

This publication has been funded by the Northern Territory Government. The contents of this publication such as text, graphics, images and information are a representation of the collective views of industry, businesses and stakeholders and in no way whatsoever represent the views held by the Northern Territory Government.